The Eighteenth Brumaire

  The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis BonaparteThe Eighteenth Brumaireof Louis Bonaparteby Karl Marx1The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis BonaparteTranslator's Preface"The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bon
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  The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis BonaparteThe Eighteenth Brumaireof Louis Bonaparteby Karl Marx1The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis BonaparteTranslator's Preface"The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte" is one of Karl Marx's2s今日教育资源网
  most profound and most brilliant monographs. It may be considered thebest work extant on the philosophy of history, with an eye especially uponthe history of the Movement of the Proletariat, together with the bourgeoisand other manifestations that accompany the same, and the tactics thatsuch conditions dictate.s2s今日教育资源网
  The recent populist uprising; the more recent "Debs Movement"; thethousand and one utopian and chimerical notions that are flaring up; thecapitalist maneuvers; thehopeless,helpless grasping afterstraws, thatcharacterize the conduct of the bulk of the working class; all of these,together with the empty-headed, ominous figures that are springing intonotoriety for a time and have their day, mark the present period of theLabor Movement inthe nation acriticalone.Thebest informationacquirable,thebest mentaltrainingobtainableare requisitetosteerthrough the existing chaos that the death-tainted social system of todaycreates all aroundus. To aid inthis needed information and mentaltraining, this instructive work is now made accessible to English readers,and is commended to the serious study of the serious.s2s今日教育资源网
  The teachings contained in this work are hung on an episode in recentFrench history. With some this fact may detract of its value.A pedantic,supercilious notion is extensively abroad among us that we are an "AngloSaxon" nation; and an equally pedantic, supercilious habit causes many tolook to England for inspiration, as from a racial birthplace Nevertheless,for weal or for woe, there is no such thing extant as "Anglo-Saxon"--of alnations, said to be "Anglo-Saxon," in the United States least. What westill have from England, much as appearances may seem to point the otherway, is not of our bone-and-marrow, so to speak, but rather partakes of thenature of "importations. "We are no more English on account of themthan we are Chinese because we all drink tea.s2s今日教育资源网
  Of all European nations, France is the on to which we come nearest.s2s今日教育资源网
  2The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis BonaparteBesides its republican form of government--the directness of its history,the unity of its actions, the sharpness that marks its internal development,are all characteristics that find their parallel her best, and vice versa.Inall essentials thestudyof modernFrench history, particularly whensketched by such a master hand as Marx', is the most valuable one for theacquisition of that historic, social and biologic insight that our countrystands particularly in need of, and that will be inestimable during theapproaching critical days.s2s今日教育资源网
  For the assistance of those who, unfamiliar with the history of France,may be confused by some of the terms usedby Marx, the followingexplanations may prove aidful:s2s今日教育资源网
  On the 18th Brumaire (Nov. 9th), the post-revolutionary developmentof affairs in France enabled the first Napoleon to take a step that led withinevitable certainty to the imperial throne. The circumstance that fiftyand odd years later similar events aided his nephew, Louis Bonaparte, totake a similar step with a similar result, gives the name to this work--"TheEighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte."As to the other terms and allusions that occur, the following sketchwill suffice:s2s今日教育资源网
  Upon the overthrow of the first Napoleon came the restoration of theBourbon throne (Louis XVIII, succeeded by Charles X).In July, 1830,an uprising of the upper tier of the bourgeoisie, or capitalist class--thearistocracy of finance-- overthrewtheBourbon throne,or landedaristocracy, and set up the throne of Orleans, a younger branch of thehouse of Bourbon, withLouisPhilippeasking.From the month inwhich this revolution occurred, Louis Philippe's monarchy is called the"July Monarchy. "In February, 1848,arevolt of alowertierofthecapitalist class-theindustrialbourgeoisie--,againstthe aristocracy offinance, in turn dethroned Louis Philippe. The affair, also named fromthemonth inwhichittook place,isthe"February Revolution."The"Eighteenth Brumaire" starts with that eventDespite the inapplicableness to our affairs of the political names andpolitical leadership herein described, both these names and leaderships are3The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparteto such an extent the products of an economic-social development that hasheretootakenplace with even greater sharpens,and they have theirpresent or threatened counterparts here so completely, that, by the light ofthis work of Marx', we are best enabled to understand our own history, toknow whence we came, and whither we are going and how to conductourselves.s2s今日教育资源网
  D.D.L. New York, Sept. 12, 18974The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis BonaparteCHAPTER IHegel says somewhere that that great historic facts and personagesrecur twice. He forgot to add: "Once as tragedy, and again as farce.

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